What Is The History of The Development of Electric Motors
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What Is The History of The Development of Electric Motors

Views: 0     Author: SDM     Publish Time: 2024-05-23      Origin: Site


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Like a silent heart, the presence of the motor is akin to a quiet stream in the long river of history. To trace its origins, we must go back to the flourishing 19th century of the Industrial Revolution. Thanks to the discovery of electromagnetic induction and the laws of electromagnetism, we have witnessed the birth of electric motors, generators, transformers, and control motors—wonderful machines that operate based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. As an electromagnetic device capable of converting or transmitting electrical energy, the core of a motor is in generating drive torque. In electromechanical engineering, motors are key devices for energy conversion and fundamental components of electrical drives. Despite their widespread applications, diverse product types, and complex specifications, their value in the industrial chain remains undeniable. This characteristic also leads to diversified and non-uniform trends in market segments, resulting in low market concentration. In modern life, the extensive application of motors has undoubtedly accelerated their continuous evolution. Depending on different application scenarios, motors have various designs and drive methods, significantly increasing the number of models and types. Based on their uses and characteristics, motors can be simply classified.

But how did motors evolve from non-existence to ubiquitous presence? Let us trace the development history of motors and analyze their past and present. On July 21, 1820, Orsted, a professor and physicist from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, discovered the "magnetic effect of electric current," establishing the electromagnetic relationship and initiating the study of electromagnetism. Shortly after, in 1821, the famous British physicist Faraday created the first experimental motor model. A year later, he demonstrated that electricity could drive motion, ushering humanity into the electrical age. With the successful invention of the first practical generator, the second industrial revolution began. In 1831, Faraday again created the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. His discoveries, such as the laws of electrolysis and gas discharge phenomena, paved the way for the later discoveries of X-rays, natural radioactivity, isotopes, and laid the foundation for the development of modern physics. In 1870, Belgian Gramme invented the DC generator, whose design was very similar to that of a motor. Later, Gramme demonstrated that when DC was supplied to the generator, its rotor would rotate like a motor. Therefore, this Gramme-type motor was mass-produced, significantly improving efficiency. By 1888, American inventor Tesla invented the AC motor based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This motor had a simple structure, used AC, required no commutation, and had no sparks, making it widely used in industrial and household appliances. Motors mainly consist of components such as rotors, stators, brushes, end caps, and bearings. The generation of current in a generator involves connecting and assembling the stator and rotor of the generator, rotating the rotor within the stator, passing a certain excitation current through slip rings to make the rotor a rotating magnetic field, and having the stator coils cut the magnetic lines to generate induced electromotive force. Finally, by leading out through terminal connections into a circuit, current is generated. The rotor rotates.

In the history of motor development, DC motors were the first to be developed, and their development stages mainly include using permanent magnets as the magnetic field, using electromagnets as magnetic poles, and changing excitation methods.

In 1854, the Danish brothers Hørrter and Werner applied for a patent for a self-excited generator, leading DC motors into a new stage of development.

Currently, after over 40 years of development, China's motor industry has made significant progress. In the global context of reducing energy consumption, high-efficiency and energy-saving motors have become a consensus in the global motor industry.

Future development trends of motors include high efficiency and energy saving, diverse forms, becoming more compact and refined, etc. Motors play an important role not only in household appliances and industrial equipment but also indirectly affect our quality of life.

motor rotors



SDM Magnetics is one of the most integrative magnet manufacturers in China. Main products : Permanent magnet,Neodymium magnets,Motor stator and rotor, Sensor resolvert and magnetic assemblies.
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